Now you're going to see substances that act like they're just images from science fiction movies.
Let's start with an unusual polymer called "Terminator". If you remember the plot of the second part of the same film, it becomes clear why this substance is so called. The polymer can become whole again if it is divided into several parts.
Similar properties have another material - self-healing plastic. Once it is at room temperature, the severed atomic bonds are restored. This happens in 97 percent of cases. These miracles do aromatic sulfides included in the composition of the plastic.
And here is another miracle-material Vantablack (vantablack). The blackest substance on earth.
This unusual substance consists of vertically oriented arrays of carbon nanotubes. Such tubes are artificially grown on aluminum foil at low temperatures. They are so densely made together that reflect only scanty 0,035 (zero as much as 35 thousandths) percent of light, and 99,965 percent of the incident radiation, microwaves and radio waves absorb. That's why vantablack is so black.
Another unique thing is Line X (the former line). It is the paint that makes things more durable. Material Line X creates long polymers, which, connecting with the surface of the object, form a dense layer of plastic. As a result, any, even the most fragile object becomes incredibly durable.
Graphene is the most durable material on Earth. 300 times stronger than steel. A sheet of graphene with an area of one square meter and a thickness of only one atom is able to hold an object weighing 4 kilograms. Graphene, as a napkin, you can bend, fold, stretch.
Graphene was found by Konstantin Novoselov and Andrey Geim, who work at the University of Manchester, for which Russian scientists were awarded the Nobel prize. And they got it very simply - exfoliated ordinary graphite with Scotch tape until they got a layer only one atom thick.
There is also a special class of materials called aerogels. In fact, it is a gel in which the liquid phase is completely replaced by a gaseous one. It is often called frozen gas.
Being solid, aerogel can 99.8 percent consist of air. At the same time, this material is super durable. It can withstand a weight exceeding its own by 4,000 times.
Invented this extraordinary substance, American chemist Steven Kistler. Imagine, back in 1931, almost 90 years ago! he published in the journal Nature the results of his first astonishing experiments. Later, in the 60 - ies of the aerogels started talking more actively.
Having an extremely low density, the aerogel has a super low heat conductivity. It's also very light. 150 blocks the size of a brick have a weight equal to the weight of 4.5 liters of water.
The most extensive field of application of aerogel – space. It is actively used by aerospace agencies as a thermal insulator.
And here is the material, which also loves heat.
Nitinol or titanium Nickel-an alloy of Nickel and titanium, which has very unusual properties. This substance is able to remember its original shape and return to it after deformation. The effect is achieved by heating the alloy to a temperature of 650 degrees Celsius.
The material is given the necessary shape, while its molecular lattice remembers its structure. Even if then the lattice is deformed, it returns to its original state. It is necessary to heat the nitinol to about 50 degrees Celsius.
Ferromagnetic liquid – another substance that wanted to sneeze at the laws of physics. It was created in 1963 by NASA employee Steve Papell.
Ferromagnetic liquid consists of ultrathin magnetic particles, usually iron. When the liquid gets under the influence of a magnetic field, it begins to produce bizarre somersaults and form amazing structures. They are called ferro-fluids.
Each such particle is covered with a surfactant, which does not allow them to stick together.
In fact, a ferromagnetic liquid is a colloidal solution, a substance that combines the properties of more than one state of matter. In this case, liquid and solid metal.
Super-cooled rubidium. It clearly violates the laws of physics, specifically, Newton's second law of motion.
But what happens to super-supercooled rubidium? Cooling to absolute zero, rubidium behaves as a substance with a negative mass. If you apply force to him, he, contrary to Newton's law, will begin to move in the direction opposite to this force.
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