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Studies have already shown that vitamins increase the risk of cancer and heart disease, as well as reduce life expectancy. However, in 2012, more than half of all Americans took vitamins... October 10, 2011 researchers at the University of Minnesota (University of Minnesota) found that the mortality rate among women taking multivitamin supplements is higher than those who did not. Two days later, researchers at the Cleveland clinic found that men taking vitamin E were at greater risk of prostate cancer. "It was a tough week for vitamins," said Carrie Gann in the ABC news. There was nothing new in the results. Seven previous studies have already shown that vitamins increase the risk of cancer and heart disease, as well as reduce life expectancy. However, in 2012, more than half of all Americans took vitamin supplements. However, few people are aware that at the origins of Hobbies vitamins was one person. This man was so obviously right that he received the Nobel prize, and so obviously wrong that he could probably be considered the world's largest charlatan. In 1931, Linus Pauling (Linus Pauling) published an article in the "Journal of the American chemical society" (Journal of the American Chemical Society) under the heading "the Nature of chemical bonds" (The Nature of The Chemical Bond). Prior to this publication, chemists were aware of two types of chemical bonds: ionic, in which one atom gives its electron to another atom, and covalent, when atoms jointly own electrons. Pauling argued that everything is not so simple – the General possession of electrons, in his opinion, should be located somewhere between the ionic and covalent bond. Pauling's idea revolutionized this field by combining quantum physics with chemistry. Its concept was actually so revolutionary that the editor of the journal, having received the manuscript of the article, could not find anyone who could write a review on it. When albert Einstein was asked what he thought about Pauling's work, he shrugged his shoulders and said, "it was too difficult for me." For this one article, Pauling Was awarded the Langmuir Prize as the most outstanding young chemist in the United States, he became the youngest member of the National Academy of Sciences, received the title of full Professor at the California Institute of technology (Caltech) and, in addition, he was awarded the Nobel prize in chemistry. Pauling was 30 years old at the time. In 1949, Pauling published an article in the journal Science entitled "sickle cell Anemia, a molecular Disease" (Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease). At that time, scientists knew that hemoglobin (a protein in the blood that transports oxygen) crystallizes in the cells of people suffering from sickle cell anemia, causing joint pain, blood clotting and death. But they didn't understand why it was happening. Pauling was the first to show that sickle-shaped hemoglobin has a slightly different electrical charge, and this quality significantly affects how hemoglobin interacts with oxygen. Pauling's discoveries gave rise to a scientific field called molecular biology. In 1951, Pauling published an article in the collection "Notes of the National Academy of Sciences" (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) entitled "structure of proteins" (the Structure of Proteins). Scientists knew that proteins were made up of groups of amino acids. Pauling suggested that proteins also have a secondary structure, which is determined by how they are superimposed on each other. One configuration he called "alpha helix" (alpha helix) – later it was used by James Watson (James Watson) Francis Crick (Francis Krick) to explain the structure of DNA. In 1961, Pauling took blood samples from gorillas, chimpanzees and other monkeys at the San Diego zoo. He intended to find out if mutations in hemoglobin could be used as a sort of evolutionary clock. Pauling showed that people separated from gorillas about 11 million years ago, that is much earlier, than scientists assumed at that time. One of his colleagues later remarked:"in one fell swoop he combined such fields of knowledge as paleontology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology."