In Ancient Russia there were often fights. They existed in Russia from ancient times to the beginning of the XX century. In addition to entertainment, pugilism was a school of war, developing the people skills necessary to protect the homeland. To refer to events in addition to the term "fist fight" was used such as "jaws", "biowise", "navoloki", "hammer fist".
Russia has its own traditions of martial arts. The Slavs were known throughout Europe as the valiant war.As the war in Russia was common, every man ought to possess military skills. Starting from an early age, children with a variety of games, such as "king of the mountain", "on the ice hill" and "pile-small", wrestling and throwing gradually accustomed to the fact that you need to be able to stand up for their Homeland, family and themselves. When children became adults, the games developed into real fights, known as "fist fights".
The first records of such fights were made by Nestor the chronicler in 1048:
"Sebo not poganski whether live... manners every listeme, prablemi ot God, pipes and clowns, and gusle, and Rosalie; widely Bo revels a follow-up activity, and a lot of people a lot, like upijati each other shame deuse obesa samilenko case.»
The rules and forms of Boxing
Fist fights were usually held on holidays, and rampant fighting began during Maslenitsa. By the number of participants they were divided into: "street to street", "village to village", "Sloboda to Sloboda". Summer battle took place in the squares, in winter on the frozen rivers and lakes. Participated in the battles and the common people and merchants.
There were types of fist fight: "one on one", "wall on wall". Considered a kind of fist fight "clutch-dump", in fact-an independent martial arts, Russian analogue pankration, fight without rules.
The most ancient form of combat — "scalasca-dump" that was often called the "coupling action", "the dump helter-skelter", "back attack", "stapeley the fray". Was a confrontation between the soldiers had fought without complying with the order every man for himself and against all. At the mention of N. Razin: "Here it was necessary to have not only dexterity and a strong blow, but also a special composure."
The most common type of fist fight was "wall to wall". The battle was divided into three stages: first, fighting boys, the unmarried young men, and in the end wall of the set and adults. It wasn't allowed to beat lying or sat down, to grab for clothes. The task of each side was to turn the enemy side into flight or at least to force them to retreat. Wall lost the "field" (the area where the fight was going on), was defeated.Each "wall" was your head — "leader", "chieftain", "the fighting elder", "leader", "old cholovik" which determined the tactics and encouraged companions. Each of the teams also had "nadezha" fighters, who were intended to break the enemy's formation, pulling out several fighters at once. Against these soldiers used a special tactic: the wall diverged, letting "hope" inside, where he was expected by special fighters, and immediately closed, not allowing the passage of the enemy wall. The soldiers who had met "hope" were experienced masters of combat "himself to himself".
"Itself on itself" or "one on one" was the most esteemed type of fight.It looked like old Boxing with bare hands in England. But Russian kind of battle was softer, as there was a rule prohibiting to kick while in England it was introduced in 1743. Fights "one on one" could be organized by a special person, and could be spontaneous. In the first case battle was appointed on a certain day and time, and the second variety could undergo in any place, where leader was coming people: fairs, holidays. Fights "himself to himself" if necessary, served to confirm the innocence of the defendant in a court case. This way to prove his innocence was called "field". "Field" existed until the death of Ivan the terrible. The fighters use punches — that cannot be compressed in a fist, not a fist fight. Three shock surfaces were used, which corresponds to the three impact surfaces of the weapon: the head of the metacarpal bones (a shot with a weapon), the base of the fist from the little finger (a chopping blow with a weapon), the head of the main phalanges (a blow with a butt). It was possible to beat in any part of the body above the waist, but trying to get to the head, solar plexus ("soul"), and the ribs ("under mikitki").Never been used the continuation of the fight on the ground (ground fighting). There were certain rules by which it was impossible to beat the lying and the person with bleeding, to use any weapon, it was necessary to fight with bare hands. For non-compliance severely punished.