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Have you ever been to Japan? For example, in this large, rapidly developing city, where skyscrapers grow like mushrooms after the rain? Welcome to Hiroshima. “What's Hiroshima?"you ask," because Hiroshima is ... " all right. Here is another Japanese city - Nagasaki. How are you? Yeah, Nagasaki too... ... Maybe the modern inhabitants of these cities deliberately misled, and they know nothing about the danger? May be an urgent need to inform the Japanese that they live in a zone of deadly radiation? But before we call EMERCOM, let's remember what we know about Radiation? This is a fairly common property of matter. The sun is something like a giant hydrogen bomb that emits photons over a wide range, ions, and gamma radiation, that is, radiation. The force that warms the Earth from the inside, from The so-called earth's core, is also related to the nuclear decay of heavy transuranic elements. Radiation radiates from the soil, living bodies, as well as some medical devices.
It turns out that radiation surrounds us everywhere and penetrates into our body.
Sometimes you can hear this phrase: “natural background radiation” - where it is only 15 thousandths of a Milli-roentgen per hour, and somewhere ten times more and he also considered “natural”. However, it is more likely that high rates of radioactive radiation in nature are as natural as the “natural” content of heavy metals in water bodies, which drain the waste products of plants.
Imagine what would happen if 209 nuclear weapons with a total capacity of about 250 MT (megaton) were to be detonated in Russia? PIP you to the language, as you say, it's the end of the world.
However, how do you feel about the official data, according to which in the period from 1949 to 1963 it is the number of nuclear missiles bombarded the territory of the Soviet Union? Here is an American bomb nicknamed "Kid", which was dropped on August 9, 1945 on Hiroshima. Now, multiply that bomb 16,600 times. This is the total power of the blow to the USSR from the 49th to 63rd years of the last century. It is as if the British released all their nuclear Arsenal of 160 warheads towards the uninhabited areas of the Soviet Union.
How is that possible? Soviet nuclear tests were conducted at two major test sites in Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya. For example, the Semipalatinsk test site, which was and is still in a fairly populated area. Although, logically, should be located almost at the North pole or somewhere in Siberia. By the time of the explosion of the first test nuclear bomb at a distance of some 60 km was a brand new city Kuratov. In 1954, 80 km from the landfill there was another - the city of Chagan.
And so, imagine that you live in one of these cities. Go out on the balcony to breathe in the fresh morning air. And suddenly-an outbreak of. “What is it, storm?",- your spouse will ask. “Yes, no, again experiencing a nuclear bomb”. Really, what's the big deal? And no panic! Of the order of hundreds of atmospheric (i.e., not underground) nuclear and thermonuclear weapons of various capacities from 1 kilotons to a few megatons, with a frequency of on average once a month. Even a tiny charge to 1 kt gives rise to a characteristic mushroom cloud with a height of about 3 km from A 1 megaton power of the mushroom with a height of 19 km. Ground nuclear explosions at the Semipalatinsk test site had a total capacity of about 100 MT. If all these shells were detonated at the same time, the square of the 240 by 240 km area would be hit by radiation of lethal power of 30 SV (Sievert). For comparison, a person with a dose of only 0.05 SV is already considered irradiated. It is the fact that the atomic bombs did not explode all at once, and strictly dosed, with a difference in time, makes these explosions much less dangerous - including in terms of radioactive radiation.
Everyone knows from school age that the earth after a nuclear explosion is uninhabitable and even deadly. The use of water from the affected area will also at least lead to a terrible irradiation of the body and genetic rearrangements, and as a maximum - to painful death. There's even a famous fairy tale about it ... but it's all in theory. What about practice?
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# physics #radiation #contamination